Python Convert Private Key To Wif

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Get the latest news and follow the coverage of breaking news events, local news, weird news, national and global politics, and more from the world's top trusted media outlets. NET program that uses ContainsKey Module Module1 Sub Main() ' Declare new Dictionary with String keys. How do I convert the private key into a 12 word seed. A dictionary is a set of key:value pairs. The Division of Information Technology provides reliable and accessible IT services to elevate and enhance Texas A&M University. It will convert any document, archive file, spreadsheet, audio and video file from one format to another. gpg --allow-secret-key-import --import private. Python is a computer programming language. The functions and classes in this module make it straightforward to handle various tasks related to IP addresses, including checking whether or not two hosts are on the same subnet, iterating over all hosts in a particular subnet, checking whether or not a string represents a valid. Follow the procedure below to extract separate certificate and private key files from the. From the secret value to a private key. In Python, there are at least two classes that can keep the private and public keys: “str” and “bytes”. These are “container” types that contain other objects. NET, Java apps via the REST API. This post will guide you through the process of setting up your Raspberry Pi as a WiFi network. WhatsApp sues NSO for allegedly helping spies hack phones around the world (reuters. (Java) Generate RSA Key and Export to PKCS1 / PKCS8. Global variables are the one that are defined and declared outside a function and we need to use them inside a function. This is better explained in this debian wiki. He moved from the Netherlands to the USA in 1995, where he met his wife. You cannot (as Anitak points out) convert from PKCS#7 to PKCS#12 without additional data (the private key part) because PKCS#7 doesn't have all of the data. The public key hash is the Bitcoin address you see published. This field MUST be present as a byte string in little-endian format. Here is code to convert any string into an MD5 Hash (an array of 16 bytes) and to convert the MD5 hash to a hex string of the format XXXX-XXXX-XXXX-XXXX-XXXX-XXXX-XXXX-XXXX (32 hex characters). The following are code examples for showing how to use ecdsa. net cf with "rsa. If no key is specified when creating class a cryptographically secure Private Key is generated using the os. > Is it possible to get the index of a specific Dictionary key? It is possible (see Omie's code), but if your program needs this for anything other than some diagnostic purpose, there might be something significantly wrong with your design!. For instance to discuss about its methods. Python 3 ranges and Ruby ranges implement some of the functionality of arrays without allocating space to hold all the elements. You can vote up the examples you like or vote down the ones you don't like. bitcoin-convertpvk. A built-in module is intrinsically contained in the interpreter, like the itertools module. Users must generate a public/private key pair when their site implements host-based authentication or user public-key authentication. To run a python script, there are two ways. Library for Bitcoin & other cryptocurrencies. These characters make it easy for humans to identify the type of data that is encoded and how to use it. 509 cert and a private key that corresponds to it. 5+, and PyPy, has no dependencies, and does not attempt to interpret the certificate data in any way. Enumerations are created using classes. If the stream becomes invalid a new key is returned. Sometimes we copy and paste the X. How do I verify that a private key matches a certificate? To verify that an RSA private key matches the RSA public key in a certificate you need to i) verify the consistency of the private key and ii) compare the modulus of the public key in the certificate against the modulus of the private key. Accept a hex private key and convert it to its respective public key. A module can be written in C and loaded dynamically at run-time, like the re (regular expression) module. Many of these methods are concerned with finding, adding, and removing pieces of data stored within the list they are being called on. OpenPGP Public Keys. It is a 256 bit number. You use TwiML to tell Twilio how to respond to incoming text messages and phone calls. An object's docsting is defined by including a string constant as the first statement in the object's definition. Try any of our 60 free missions now and start your data science journey. If the public key/address for a particular private key are to be derived from the compressed encoding of the public key, the private key gets an extra 0x01 byte at the end, resulting in a base58 form that starts with 'K' or 'L'. Learn programming, marketing, data science and more. The standard Python indentation is 4 spaces, although tabs and any other space size will work, as long as it is consistent. For eg: when converting a java object Map(String,Object) to a json string using writeValueAsString() method. accessories/manifest api_council_filter Parent for API additions that requires Android API Council approval. That module (it's actually a Python package or a library that acts like a module) contains some reasonable support for creating and running multiple processes implemented in Python and for communicating between those processes using Queues and Pipes (also in the multiprocessing. The degree of randomness and uniqueness is well defined by cryptographic functions for security purposes. In current versions of python, you can use "in" to check existence in both List and Dicts of defined vars: A good example of this is the __file__ var, which is not defined when the python interpreter is run interactively from a DOS shell, or if a py2exe executable is run. p12) The Personal Information Exchange format (PFX, also called PKCS #12) defines a file format that can be used for secure storage of certificates (containing both private and public keys), and all certificates in a certification path, protected with a password-based symmetric key. OpenSSL provides a lot of features for manipulating PEM and DER certificates. If the private key uses a passphrase, this has to be configured in wpa_supplicant. A list of 2048 words, which is indexed from 0-2047(11 bit information) is used. is this correct. Well organized and easy to understand Web building tutorials with lots of examples of how to use HTML, CSS, JavaScript, SQL, PHP, Python, Bootstrap, Java and XML. There is a free Command line tool, known as Swiss File Knife which takes a file which has LF line endings and then it converts those LFs to CRLF. mypalmike 17 April 2008 Reply. Re-Encrypting a Data Key Under a Different Customer Master Key To decrypt an encrypted data key, and then immediately re-encrypt the data key under a different customer master key (CMK), use the ReEncrypt operation. Just hit ENTER or click on the other text window to update the key. openssl rsa -in key. Only the owner of the key pair is allowed to see the private exponent. Convert it to Byte array. The python standard library contains the module multiprocessing. SECP256k1(). ImportCspBlob(StreamFile(path));". This Python script below implements the basic RSA encryption and decryption operations without any concern about padding or character encoding. In cryptography, X. I have to convert it as a String and send to third party. From the secret value to a private key. $\endgroup$ - Humam Shbib Mar 18 '12 at 17:36. You can use a key without a passphrase, but this is not recommended. This tutorial walks you through how to package a simple Python project. pem is an MIT-licensed Python module for parsing and splitting of PEM files, i. The python standard library contains the module multiprocessing. Quora is a place to gain and share knowledge. Copy the PFX or P12 file to the same location as your OpenSSL program (or specify the location in the command line). i want to convert my usb flash to dongle flash, but i donot understand the way that the dongle is work or how did it develope its software i want any one to help me to understand how to programme my owne dongle and how does the dongle work please help me What is the intended purpose of this dongle. 509 client certificate, private key, AWS Root CA cert, and a script to poll the AWS MQTT Python client source from the github. Others are more concerned with the structure of the. This format -----BEGIN RSA PRIVATE KEY----- -----END RSA PRIVATE KEY----- is referred to as "SSLeay format" or "traditional format" for private key. Quick online scheduling for in-person and online tutoring help. 1 format (and ASN. We use cookies for various purposes including analytics. pem) generated by Amazon EC2. It turns out to be quite easy (about one page of code for the main idea and two pages for embellishments) using two ideas: constraint propagation and search. Python provides two levels of access to network services. Python uses indentation to define code blocks, instead of brackets. If you want to find Wifi password of a specific network only, follow the instructions below: Open Command Prompt in administrative mode. I can import X. I've swept my private key using Blockchain. Converting keys to PKCS8 for Java. pfx" certificate in a ". while reading this post. This module illustrates how to write your docstring in OpenAlea and other projects related to OpenAlea. With Cloudinary you can easily upload videos to the cloud and automatically perform smart video. Symmetric algorithms require the creation of a key and an initialization vector (IV). If all is ok, then your task will be to make a WiFi connection to their router. '5' keys are uncompressed, the other two are compressed. ppk file for use with PuTTY. This key will vary in length depending on the algorithm that you use. Bitcoin private key is not stored in this way, rather seed to prng which generated the private and public key pair is converted into mnemonic so that its easy for human to type or remember. Leave the default settings selected and click Next. Once you have finished getting started you could add a new project or learn about pygame by reading the docs. This is a much more serious test and we start to see the size of the python interpreter process grow to accomodate the data structures used in the computation. der To print out the components of a private key to standard output: openssl rsa -in key. If you are interested in reading in a set of DICOM files that form and MRI or a CT, then I recommend using a higher level library built on top of Pydicom, called dicom-nu. Remove Passphrase From Private Key. The corresponding public key '. Your Bitcoin Private Key is a unique secret number that only you know. The standard library contains a rich set of fixers that will handle almost all code. Errors and warnings will be given on the status line. If you configure SSH on your server to accept only connections using keys, then no one can log in by using just a password. Hex To ASCII Converter. As its name suggests, converting our private key into a WIF allows us to easily import it into most Bitcoin wallet software: Importing our test private key. Save the text file in the same folder where you saved the private key, using the. ContainsKey("carrot") Then ' Write value of the key. Initially a standard created by a private company (RSA Laboratories), it became a de facto standard so has been described in various RFCs, most notably RFC 5208 ("Public-Key Cryptography Standards (PKCS) #8: Private-Key Information Syntax Specification Version 1. Generate a SHA-256 hash with this free online encryption tool. pfx file is in PKCS#12 format and includes both the certificate and the private key. openssl pkcs8 -topk8 -inform PEM -outform DER -in rsa_private. RSA Signature with Certificate's Private Key from PFX; RSA Signature/Verify with. Actually, the. Take a private key. >>> Python Needs You. If your data is too large to be passed in a single call, you can hash it separately and pass that value using Prehashed. A public key is placed on the server and a matching private key is placed on your local computer. $ python -c ’print("4120746f702073656372657421". PyPI helps you find and install software developed and shared by the Python community. Free online conversion utility to automatically convert your VB. BurnIgnorance. Image is accessible to the public--private¶ Image is inaccessible to the public (default)--community¶ Image is accessible to the community--shared¶ Image can be shared--property ¶ Set a property on this image (repeat option to set multiple properties)--tag ¶ Set a tag on this image (repeat option to set multiple tags). net cf with "rsa. So, can anyone tell me an alternative to convert the RSA public key to String format. Before You Begin. If no key is specified when creating class a cryptographically secure Private Key is generated using the os. This is known as the "Wallet Import Format", or WIF, of our Bitcoin private key: Base58Check. cryptography is divided into two layers of recipes and hazardous materials (hazmat). PuTTY does not natively support the private key format (. Python is an interpreted language, which means you can run the program as soon as you make changes to the file. A private SSH key file that the user stores on their local devices. Or create your own group and meet people near you who share your interests. If you are new to Python, before you begin check out this book: Think Python: How to Think Like a Computer Scientist. Python print command operators The print statement is useful for joining multiple words, strings, num bers with different data types as well. Some people use books, birth dates, poems or song lyrics -- these people lose all their money. It can be encoded in a number of different formats. It runs natively for Windows, and also runs on Linux and Mac OS X using Mono and available to download on GitHub. "Greetings human 🤖". In this tutorial we will check how to get started with ESP-NOW, a connectionless WiFi communication protocol from Espressif [1]. keyPress event in C# Handle Keyboard Input at the Form Level in C#. Python compiles files into Python bytecode so that it won't have to parse the files each time modules are loaded. ppk file before you can connect to your instance using PuTTY. In some circumstances there may be a need to have the certificate private key unencrypted. Bitcoin Hash160 generator, BitCoin address generator, Bitcoin public key to Hash160, Bitcoin address validity checker. 509 is a standard defining the format of public key certificates. Encoded string will appear in the box below, where you can easily copy it from. To achieve these goals PsychoPy provides a unique choice of interface: use the Builder interface to build rich, flexible experiments easily or use the Coder interface to write extremely powerful experiments in the widely-used Python programming language. python; Apple iOS reboot for WiFi connection 15 October, 2019. With Cloudinary you can easily upload videos to the cloud and automatically perform smart video. No matter where you store your private key, your wallet is vulnerable to theft since the hacker simply needs to gain access to your private key. It is quite similar to modern cryptography where two keys—PUBLIC and PRIVATE—are used to encrypt and decrypt the message. Background. Discover these and more reasons why you should set up a proxy server. Images are the combination of width and hight (W*H) that becomes pixel images are based on 8-bit or 24-bit color combination, if we discuss about 8-bit color than there would 256 colors formed an image because of the basic binary calculation (2^8= 256). Actually, the output of the hashing above taken as a 256-bit unsigned number is already the private key, what is commonly called the secret exponent. Source and binary executables are signed by the release manager or binary builder using their OpenPGP key. HD / BIP32 hd-priv Create a private HD key from another HD private key. Free to join, pay only for what you use. Python Tutor (created by Philip Guo) helps people overcome a fundamental barrier to learning programming: understanding what happens as the computer runs each line of code. Using a Python recipe? Installing ActivePython is the easiest way to run your project. Tools are provided for blockchain transactions, RPC calls, and private keys, public keys, and addresses. 509 formats. margin_stream_get_listen_key [source] ¶ Start a new margin data stream and return the listen key If a stream already exists it should return the same key. Although architecturally undistinguished (Pevsner Architectural Guides describing it as "frenetic Jacobean"), the house has been a favoured residence of the Royal family for over 150 years. Being a python developer, this post was really helpful for me to more understand python code for GPS tracker, to be frank, the code was a little bit confusing, but I am going to bookmark this for further understanding, thanks for sharing, Thanks. SQLite Python tutorial. Debian and other distros have wpa_suplicant running as a service by default in order to manage the wifi networks. 509 certs easily enough into Windows but what about private keys? Is the only way I can do that by converting both the cert and the private key to a "Personal Information Exchange (PKCS #12)" file and importing that? Maybe this question would be better on. Built on top of the Plotly JavaScript library (plotly. A private key is essentially a randomly generated number. I am aware how to convert the private key into WIF format in python, now I am trying to reverse this process and convert a WIF formatted private key back into a 256-bit private key, following this. Reporting an Issue. SECP256k1(). pem file to. Find affordable, top-rated private tutors in 250+ subjects and test prep on Wyzant. At a low level, you can access the basic socket support in the underlying operating system, which allows you to implement clients and servers for both connection-oriented and connectionless protocols. Amazon S3 uses base64 strings for their hashes. PLATINUM)SPONSORS) GOLD)SPONSORS) SILVER)SPONSORS) Saturday, May 4, 13 2. There are three parts to this tutorial: A. Online converter. Simple to use. Cracking Codes with Python teaches complete beginners how to program in the Python programming language. Dim dictionary As New Dictionary(Of String, Integer) ' Add two keys. StudyBlue is the largest crowdsourced study library, with over 400 million flashcards, notes and study guides from students like you. The key & value pairs are listed between curly brackets " { } " We query the dictionary using square brackets " [ ] " Dictionary Manipulation. In cryptography, X. Open source software is made better when users can easily contribute code and documentation to fix bugs and add features. You can use a key without a passphrase, but this is not recommended. The Python stuff at work generally just ticks away doing its thing, so there isn't a lot of call to hack on it at the moment. 3 - RIPEMD-160 Hash of 2. SQLite is a database that is stored in a single file on disk. pem extensions are quite confusing for me. It can be encoded in a number of different formats. DER and PEM are formats used in X509 and other certificates to store Public, Private Keys and other related information. It applies a rolling computation to sequential pairs of values in a list. Use Hex to Decimal Converter to convert hexadecimal to binary (numbers with base 2) and decimal numbers (numbers with base 10). 1 is itself written according to DER -- Distinguished Encoding Rules). But on a recent afternoon, sitting in the elegant patron's room at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the singer and guitarist fires away when. Convert PEM encoded RSA keys from PKCS#1 to PKCS#8 and vice versa. wif is the string value of the wallet import format key. crt and privateKey. 2 BTC mine to spend once again. pem file to a. Private key; Not To Be Confused With. Precisely, I’ll use two Python modules for scraping data:. pub extension to indicate that the file contains a public key. ToDateTime(String), DateTime. Keys can be encoded in a number of different formats. Any links to tools or guides would be awesome!. Under Actions / Save the generated key, select Save private key. Crackstation's lookup tables were created by extracting every word from the Wikipedia databases and adding with every password list we could find. I can maybe make virtual environments when the webclient logs in. NET code into C# - and straight back again. Some times Filezilla prompt to convert key in the case provided key is not in the correct format which Filezilla supports. You can use this to find the point position in GPS device. A quick way to sweep bitcoin private key safely. 509 certificates in PEM and DER formats. The Python for loop starts with the keyword "for" followed by an arbitrary variable name, which will hold the values of the following sequence object, which is stepped. RSA code is used to encode secret messages. WIF uses base58Check encoding on a private key, greatly decreasing the chance of copying error, much like standard Bitcoin addresses. Or even if you use an app a way to get the local key without installing software on the phone to perform MitM attacks or read the key from the smart-life-app cache. 4 Task 4: Signing a Message The public/private keys used in this task are the same as the ones used in Task 2. There are already methods for this in BouncyCastle package, but there is a catch, as always. DER and PEM are formats used in X509 and other certificates to store Public, Private Keys and other related information. They are designed to be easily computable and able to process even large messages in real time. Python has great JSON support with the json package. > Is it possible to get the index of a specific Dictionary key? It is possible (see Omie's code), but if your program needs this for anything other than some diagnostic purpose, there might be something significantly wrong with your design!. PKCS8 private key files, like the above, are capable of holding many different types of private key - not just EC keys. Just hit ENTER or click on the other text window to update the key. When you clicked "Download Connection Kit" button you will get zip file "connect_device_package. I was recently in a meeting where a person needed to generate a private and public key for RSA encryption, but they were using a PC (Windows). WhatsApp sues NSO for allegedly helping spies hack phones around the world (reuters. If your data is too large to be passed in a single call, you can hash it separately and pass that value using Prehashed. PuTTY does not natively support the private key format (. import json import requests These import statements load Python code that allow us to work with the JSON data format and the HTTP protocol. Power up your network applications with Python programming Key Features Master Python skills to develop powerful network applications Grasp the fundamentals and functionalities of SDN Design multi-threaded, event-driven architectures for … - Selection from Python Network Programming [Book]. Feel free to convert the file and save with some other name. Learn how to generate and use RSA public and private keys in Java. Sniffers are programs that can capture/sniff/detect network traffic packet by packet and analyse them for various reasons. When the PEM format is used to store cryptographic keys the body of the content is in a format called PKCS #8. If you will be using a Python client to connect to Platform Application Center, or pacclient. Following is the syntax for keys() method − dict. The forms of incoming data we'll cover are: query. Over the years the amount of keys in hiera are growing and growing. A constructor is a special kind of method that Python calls when it instantiates an object using the definitions found in your class. You are responsible for ensuring that you have the necessary permission to reuse any work on this site. RSA Private Key Encryption. For additional options, see the ssh-keygen(1) man page. Learn how to package your Python code for PyPI. x source code and applies a series of fixers to transform it into valid Python 3. 509 formats. A public key is placed on the server and a matching private key is placed on your local computer. Here are 4 simple tools that can easily convert the reghex to more readable text values to make the data more understandable. Every single string of 64 hex are, hypothetically, an Ethereum private key (see link at top for why this isn't totally accurate) that will access an account. You must store your private keys in a wallet you trust and. By default, this would be the boto. This is step is trivial. You are responsible for ensuring that you have the necessary permission to reuse any work on this site. In this case, you will have to use the "Validate" feature on the generator to extract the unencrypted Wallet Import Format (WIF) key as an intermediate step before sweeping the balance. Generate a Private Key. You cannot (as Anitak points out) convert from PKCS#7 to PKCS#12 without additional data (the private key part) because PKCS#7 doesn't have all of the data. The public key could be given to everyone but the private key must be kept secret. The default value is N. A private SSH key file that the user stores on their local devices. Most common databases for Python web apps. passphrase the passphrase to encrypt the key with. How to convert Private Key WIF Compressed start with a 'L' to Private Key WIF starts with a '5' I need to convert Private Key WIF Compressed 52 characters base58, starts with a 'K' or 'L' to Private Key WIF 51 characters base58, starts with a '5' How do to that?. WEP Key Generator. Python is a very useful programming language that has an easy to read syntax, and allows programmers to use. I will provide a description of the algorithm and the code in Python. This section of the tutorial just goes over various python dictionary methods. A bitcoin private key has 256 bits of entropy, so that would be roughly a 60-digit number times $1000 --. If dictionary. How can I do this on Windows? A. A public key is placed on the server and a matching private key is placed on your local computer. py' at the end of the file - it is ignored. So I'm assuming you had a go at it. PostgreSQL and MySQL are two of the most common open source databases for storing Python web applications' data. Any links to tools or guides would be awesome!. These characters make it easy for humans to identify the type of data that is encoded and how to use it. A WEP key is a security passcode for Wi-Fi devices. A collaborative learning platform for software developers. For broadcasting, we first need to convert the transactions class into a JSON object. PEM is required for a number of gateway type devices and if you primarily use Windows you likely have a PFX file that contains your private key. new_key() or when you get a listing of keys in the bucket you will get an instances of your key class rather than the default. I was recently in a meeting where a person needed to generate a private and public key for RSA encryption, but they were using a PC (Windows). Java Program to Convert or Change Uppercase to Lowercase String. ) What you need: A Mac or Linux computer with Python. Normally we encrypt with the public key, so that only the owner of the private key can decrypt this ciphertext. If you've found a security issue within CPython, the first thing we ask is that you keep the details of the issue private. crt and privateKey. Right-click in the text field labeled Public key for pasting into OpenSSH authorized_keys file and choose Select All. PFX (Personal Information Exchange) File is used to store Certificate and its private and public keys. PuTTY does not natively support the private key format (. I am aware how to convert the private key into WIF format in python, now I am trying to reverse this process and convert a WIF formatted private key back into a 256-bit private key, following this. 2 - SHA-256 hash of 1. Note: this is NOT a forum for technical questions about non-FreeBSD operating systems!. SSL Checker RSA Keys Converter. It’s a funny name, but key fobs are serious business. RSA keys have a minimum key length of 768 bits and the default length is 2048. They are extracted from open source Python projects. This video is for people who wants to use (almost) raw python code to create a private and a public Bitcoin keys and to convert them to Bitcoin address. Three very small observations: In your function generate_private_key_wif, you never use hashed, you re-compute it for the return value. Using OpenSSL RSA commands and an RSA Public Key Implementation in Python. Although JSON is derived from JavaScript, it is. The routine of going to your own home is a type of tacit knowledge that you convert to explicit knowledge when you give someone directions or draw a map. pfx) and copy it to a system where you have OpenSSL installed. This is something that is easily done via a terminal using ssh-keygen on Mac and Linux, however on Windows… this tool is not easily accessible to the non-technical person. Das Passwort wird abgefragt und die Schlüssel werden wieder entschlüsselt. Hence, it is necessary to find the best to use library. In Python 3 range() returns an object which implements the immutable sequence API. Technologies. ActiveState saw majority of downloads being Python 3 since January 2017. This Python script below implements the basic RSA encryption and decryption operations without any concern about padding or character encoding. The fact-checkers, whose work is more and more important for those who prefer facts over lies, police the line between fact and falsehood on a day-to-day basis, and do a great job. Today, my small contribution is to pass along a very good overview that reflects on one of Trump’s favorite overarching falsehoods. Namely: Trump describes an America in which everything was going down the tubes under  Obama, which is why we needed Trump to make America great again. And he claims that this project has come to fruition, with America setting records for prosperity under his leadership and guidance. “Obama bad; Trump good” is pretty much his analysis in all areas and measurement of U.S. activity, especially economically. Even if this were true, it would reflect poorly on Trump’s character, but it has the added problem of being false, a big lie made up of many small ones. Personally, I don’t assume that all economic measurements directly reflect the leadership of whoever occupies the Oval Office, nor am I smart enough to figure out what causes what in the economy. But the idea that presidents get the credit or the blame for the economy during their tenure is a political fact of life. Trump, in his adorable, immodest mendacity, not only claims credit for everything good that happens in the economy, but tells people, literally and specifically, that they have to vote for him even if they hate him, because without his guidance, their 401(k) accounts “will go down the tubes.” That would be offensive even if it were true, but it is utterly false. The stock market has been on a 10-year run of steady gains that began in 2009, the year Barack Obama was inaugurated. But why would anyone care about that? It’s only an unarguable, stubborn fact. Still, speaking of facts, there are so many measurements and indicators of how the economy is doing, that those not committed to an honest investigation can find evidence for whatever they want to believe. Trump and his most committed followers want to believe that everything was terrible under Barack Obama and great under Trump. That’s baloney. Anyone who believes that believes something false. And a series of charts and graphs published Monday in the Washington Post and explained by Economics Correspondent Heather Long provides the data that tells the tale. The details are complicated. Click through to the link above and you’ll learn much. But the overview is pretty simply this: The U.S. economy had a major meltdown in the last year of the George W. Bush presidency. Again, I’m not smart enough to know how much of this was Bush’s “fault.” But he had been in office for six years when the trouble started. So, if it’s ever reasonable to hold a president accountable for the performance of the economy, the timeline is bad for Bush. GDP growth went negative. Job growth fell sharply and then went negative. Median household income shrank. The Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped by more than 5,000 points! U.S. manufacturing output plunged, as did average home values, as did average hourly wages, as did measures of consumer confidence and most other indicators of economic health. (Backup for that is contained in the Post piece I linked to above.) Barack Obama inherited that mess of falling numbers, which continued during his first year in office, 2009, as he put in place policies designed to turn it around. By 2010, Obama’s second year, pretty much all of the negative numbers had turned positive. By the time Obama was up for reelection in 2012, all of them were headed in the right direction, which is certainly among the reasons voters gave him a second term by a solid (not landslide) margin. Basically, all of those good numbers continued throughout the second Obama term. The U.S. GDP, probably the single best measure of how the economy is doing, grew by 2.9 percent in 2015, which was Obama’s seventh year in office and was the best GDP growth number since before the crash of the late Bush years. GDP growth slowed to 1.6 percent in 2016, which may have been among the indicators that supported Trump’s campaign-year argument that everything was going to hell and only he could fix it. During the first year of Trump, GDP growth grew to 2.4 percent, which is decent but not great and anyway, a reasonable person would acknowledge that — to the degree that economic performance is to the credit or blame of the president — the performance in the first year of a new president is a mixture of the old and new policies. In Trump’s second year, 2018, the GDP grew 2.9 percent, equaling Obama’s best year, and so far in 2019, the growth rate has fallen to 2.1 percent, a mediocre number and a decline for which Trump presumably accepts no responsibility and blames either Nancy Pelosi, Ilhan Omar or, if he can swing it, Barack Obama. I suppose it’s natural for a president to want to take credit for everything good that happens on his (or someday her) watch, but not the blame for anything bad. Trump is more blatant about this than most. If we judge by his bad but remarkably steady approval ratings (today, according to the average maintained by 538.com, it’s 41.9 approval/ 53.7 disapproval) the pretty-good economy is not winning him new supporters, nor is his constant exaggeration of his accomplishments costing him many old ones). I already offered it above, but the full Washington Post workup of these numbers, and commentary/explanation by economics correspondent Heather Long, are here. On a related matter, if you care about what used to be called fiscal conservatism, which is the belief that federal debt and deficit matter, here’s a New York Times analysis, based on Congressional Budget Office data, suggesting that the annual budget deficit (that’s the amount the government borrows every year reflecting that amount by which federal spending exceeds revenues) which fell steadily during the Obama years, from a peak of $1.4 trillion at the beginning of the Obama administration, to $585 billion in 2016 (Obama’s last year in office), will be back up to $960 billion this fiscal year, and back over $1 trillion in 2020. (Here’s the New York Times piece detailing those numbers.) Trump is currently floating various tax cuts for the rich and the poor that will presumably worsen those projections, if passed. As the Times piece reported: